Eternal eoniums and their complex nature
Among indoor succulents, there are many plants with both a classic appearance and flaunting their unusual details. One of the most popular representatives of the Tolstyankov family - eonium is considered to be a plant not only hardy and long-lived (as its name says), but also extremely effective. Succulent leaves collected in flower-like rosettes often rise on bare shoots, creating the feeling of exotic trees in a mini-format. And although it is not so easy to grow aeoniums, they can become real stars and large room collections, and decorate a table setting or a working corner.
Juicy green eonium flower sockets
The appearance of Eoniums to many gardeners reminds of a garden star from among the succulents - an amazing "stone rose" youngsters. Eonium really forms leaf rosettes, also similar to rose flowers or dahlias. But these plants are completely different in nature and can boast a much greater variety in height, and in the form of growth, and in the color of the leaves. Among the eoniums, there are both the most modest and unremarkable indoor succulents, the beauty of which can only be appreciated close by, and impressive exotics, in which it is not so easy to recognize the decorative foliage culture from the Tolstyankov family.
Eonium (Aeonium) Is a large genus of succulents developing in the form of compact shrubs or grassy crops. These are real long-lived plants that have been introduced into the interior of rooms for decades. As with all succulents, aeonium is characterized by fleshy leaves and shoots that accumulate water. The stems are powerful, straight, branching or growing one at a time, gradually lignifying and showing off marks from fallen old leaves resembling scars. Some species of eonium form spectacular aerial roots.
The height of these plants ranges from a modest 10-15 cm to almost 1 m. Moreover, in different species, the stems can be either pronounced, resemble woody plants, or almost completely hide under squat rosettes of leaves. The fleshy leaves are always sessile, tapering to the base, resembling petals or rhombuses in shape. A rare edge or an absolute glossy surface is combined with decorated with thin white cilia or small cloves edges.
The leaves are collected in very thick, flower-like rosettes, arranged in them tiled, patterned. Sockets in diameter range from a few centimeters to almost 1 m, but are always located at the ends of the stems.
The color of the leaves varies from the usual light green to various reddish, brown, purple shades, most often unevenly distributed on the leaf blade. In indoor conditions, aeonium blooms very rarely. The pyramidal brushes of inflorescences of bright yellow color are very effective and last a long time. But the lack of flowering has its own plus. Species in which a single rosette of leaves is formed most often die after flowering.
The best types of indoor eoniums are rightly considered:
- Eonium noble (Aeonium nobile) - a spectacular indoor succulent with curving on the edge, very juicy olive leaves forming flower-shaped rosettes up to half a meter in diameter.
- Eonium Burchard (Aeonium x burchardii) - a small, but very effective hybrid species with a rather dark beautiful stem and rosettes of leaves with a diameter of up to 10 cm, in which the pointed top and brownish-orange edge turn into a bright green color at the base of the leaf.
- Eonium is decorative (Aeonium decorum) Is one of the most spectacular branching species of eonium, developing in the form of a surprisingly delicate, loose bush, the rosettes of leaves of which rise to a height of 50 cm. Rough shoots with diamond-shaped scars and densely spaced whitish outgrowths are crowned with elegant, graceful, similar to miniature rosettes rosettes . Greenish-pink smooth leaves up to 3 mm long look like young leaves of a rose thanks to small sharp cloves along the edge.
- Eonium Canary (Aeonium canariense) as if it consists of only sockets. The stems of this succulent are practically invisible, the rosette of leaves, especially in young plants, practically lies on the ground. The leaves are unusually large, with the original bend of the leaf blades, an unusual color that appears brownish-green. Gradually, the leaf rosette becomes loose, in diameter it can reach about half a meter.
- Eonium Virgin (Aeonium canariense var. virgineum) - a charming succulent, the most attractive part of which are dense cilia along the edge of leaf blades. It forms almost flat, very beautiful rosettes from rounded leaves. It produces a lot of leaves, which together form a cushion of numerous green flowers. The edge resembling a velveteen, a rich green color and a light aroma that comes from the greens, only add to this amazingly succulent charm.
- Eonium home (Aeonium domesticumtoday re-qualified as a hybrid Aichrison home (Aichryson x domesticum)) also branches quite strongly, but at the same time it is limited to a height of only 30 cm. It flaunts with almost open, curving branches only on the top and darker leaves of the obovate shape with a rounded edge. Rosettes of leaves at this eonium resemble an inflorescence of zinnia.
- Eonium wavy (Aeonium undulatum) Is a spectacular, but somewhat unusual and very powerful plant with thick silver stems covered with scars and large shoots located at the top of the shoots, reminiscent of a half-opened bud with rosettes of leaves up to 30 cm in diameter. The leaves of this species are rounded, strongly narrowed at the base, densely sitting, with a bright color.
- Eonium woody (Aeonium arboreum) - a spectacular shrub with almost non-branching shoots, woody only at the base, whose dense rosettes of leaves are located on the tops of the shoots, painted mainly brown with rare bursts of light green. Rosettes of leaves up to 20 cm in diameter, shovel-shaped in shape, due to different limb angles seem more magnificent.
- Eonium Golden (Aeonium arboretum var. holochrysum) forms original bushes with straight, slightly hanging shoots only at the ends and narrow shovel-shaped, very thick leaves, with a purple strip along the edge of the leaf and in the very center. The yellow-green color in combination with the colored stripes looks very colorful. Rosettes of leaves reach 20 cm in diameter.
- Eonium Lindley (Aeonium lindleyi) - compact, reaching a height of only 30 cm, but highly branching shrub with very thin curved brown shoots, crowning with dense small rosettes of dark green color. Slightly pubescent leaves with a round edge resemble foliage stonecrops. The foliage of this species is sticky and quite fragrant.
- Eonium layered (Aeonium tabuliforme) - one of the most stunted species, forming a sitting, almost flat plate-shaped rosette from sitting, tile-like leaves, creating a kind of green “cobblestone” with a diameter of up to 50 cm. The stem is very shortened, almost imperceptible. Narrow leaves at the base pass into an expanded spade-shaped upper edge with beautiful whitish cilia. It stands out for its perfect symmetry and stunningly beautiful tiled patterns.
- Eonium Haworth (Aeonium haworthii) - a spectacular branching “tree” with unusual wide-spaced thin stems and massive aerial roots that seem to support arch-curving shoots. On the tops of the stem are dense rosettes, similar to green flowers, with gray-green leaves decorated with a reddish stripe along the edge.
Almost all eoniums are represented not only by species plants, but also by decorative varietal forms. Especially popular are all varieties of Variegatum and the so-called “black” varieties.
Eonium care at home
It is very easy to grow eonium. It is a succulent plant, light-loving and sensitive to an excess of moisture, which despite natural preferences for a cool wintering, tolerates well even with room temperatures. It’s not difficult to look after Eonium, this plant is suitable even for beginner flower growers. Compact and surprisingly beautiful in detail, they require attention in only one way - aeoniums are designed to be admired. These are piece accents that deserve a special place in the interior.
Lighting for eonium
Without exception, aeoniums are sun-loving plants, which even in winter require the selection of the most brightly lit locations. In varietal plants, as well as species with variegated color of leaves, any shading causes a complete loss of characteristic color. Moreover, even in light penumbra, at any Eonium, the stems become much thinner, stretch, bend, and the plants form small and not so spectacular rosettes.
For this indoor succulent, it is advisable to select only the southern locations on the windowsills. Optimum are windows oriented strictly south or southeast. At the same time, during the hottest period in the summer, when the plants are at temperatures outside the optimal range, it is better to protect the fleshy leaves of this succulent from sunlight.
Eonium and so it is necessary to place it on the brightest places in the room, so in winter it is simply impossible to increase the illumination for it. This succulent does not like artificial illumination in any form.
Despite his love for the brightest possible lighting, aeonium cannot be reckoned with heat-loving plants. This culture most spectacularly looks only when maintaining optimal conditions, alternating different modes of detention in the phase of active development and during the rest period. Eonium feels great at an air temperature of 20 to 25 degrees during spring and summer. Lower temperatures for the plant can be fatal, but higher temperatures can increase sensitivity to direct sunlight and the dependence of plants on fresh air.
In winter, without exception, all species of aeonium prefer coolness, the content in the temperature range from 10 to 12 degrees. But at the same time, you should not be afraid of ordinary room conditions. Unlike many other plants, aeonium adapts well to normal indoor indicators even during winter. Just a plant will form a smaller number of outlets, and their diameter will decrease slightly.
Eonium can safely be reckoned among indoor crops that adore fresh air. In summer, he feels great outdoors, in the garden or on the balcony. At the same time, the obligatory callout affects the beauty and attractiveness of the leaf outlets themselves and the color of the leaf plates. It is possible to keep Eonium in the fresh air all summer. It is carried out as soon as nighttime temperatures rise above 10 degrees Celsius and left until the moment when the first cold weather arrives. In the rest of the year, the plant must be provided with as frequent airing as possible.
Watering and humidity
Like all succulents, aeoniums need fairly moderate watering. Between the procedures, the soil should have time to dry out almost completely. Thanks to rarer watering, even very busy flower growers can grow a plant. In winter, the procedures should be very rare at all, just not allowing the substrate to dry completely (but humidity is significantly reduced compared with the period of active development).
The most difficult thing in watering this succulent is the need to very carefully carry out the procedure itself. Water should not fall on the base of the rosette and stem, drops should in no case accumulate in the center of the bush. Wetting stems for eonium is the most common cause of the spread of a variety of rot and fungal infections. Therefore, watering for this plant must be carried out strictly along the edge of the pot.
But aonium does not need to increase air humidity. They perfectly tolerate even the driest air and the operation of heating systems, do not even need rare spraying, including during the hottest periods in the summer. In fact, all humidification procedures come down to regular removal of accumulated dust.
Feeding for aeonium
This succulent needs fertilizer only during the period of active growth from spring to summer. At the same time, top dressing for eoniums is carried out even less than for cacti. For this plant, one procedure is enough in 2-3 weeks.
Mixtures of fertilizers for cacti or other succulents are best suited for eonium.
If necessary, Eonium tolerates forming non-cardinal pruning well. Plants need it only if the shoots are excessively thin, extended, plants lose their decorative effect. In the early spring, at the first signs of the beginning of growth, overgrown, twisted shoots are cut off and used for rooting. On the remaining hemp eoniums usually form a large number of young outlets.
Aeonium transplant and substrate
Like all succulents, aeoniums need a permeable, very light and loose substrate. Optimal mixtures are considered to be earth mixtures, consisting of equal parts of leafy, soddy soil, coarse sand and peat. The finished substrate, intended for cacti, is also suitable for the characteristics of this plant. The addition of charcoal to the soil prevents most diseases of the aonium.
Plant transplants also will not cause trouble for gardeners. Only young plants are transplanted annually, but adults need to change the capacity and substrate only with a frequency of 1 time in 2-3 years. Plants can be either transshipped or partially removed. But since aeoniums are hypersensitive to root rot, they must necessarily lay a high layer of drainage with a minimum height of 7-8 cm. It is advisable to keep the level of penetration unchanged.
Diseases and pests of aeoniums
Eoniums cannot boast of enviable resistance to pests and diseases. They are especially fond of mealybugs that settle in dense rosettes between leaves. It is very easy to notice the defeat by pests, because of them growth stops immediately, the attractive appearance of outlets is gradually changing to neglected. It is better to deal with any pests by mechanical washing with a soap solution. Insecticides for this culture are used only as a last resort.
On eoniums, various fungal diseases are very often found. But they occur in the plant only with a violation of care, in particular, with inaccurate watering, during which the base of the bush or rosettes gets wet.
Common growing problems:
- elongation of shoots, plant curvature and loss of attractive appearance in insufficiently bright light;
- the appearance of yellow and brown spots with waterlogging;
- the appearance of dark areas on the leaves in the shade;
- depressed appearance, loss of color in the absence of access to fresh air.
These succulents are very easy to propagate. For eoniums, both the method of obtaining new plants from seeds and the rooting of apical cuttings are suitable.
The seeds of the plant are very small, they are simply scattered on the surface without covering with a substrate and, after light spraying with a sprayer, covered with a film or glass. If the air temperature exceeds 20 degrees Celsius, they sprout very quickly and give amicable shoots. Growing a plant requires a gradual change in individual containers.
Cuttings are an even simpler method. For rooting at Eonium, stems with leaf rosettes at the top are used. The shoots are cut with a sharp knife at an angle of 45 degrees, immediately treating the surface of the cut with crushed coal and letting it dry for 2-3 days. Then, cuttings with rosettes of leaves are planted in a pot with a mixture of leafy soil and sand or in clean sand, deepened by 2-3 cm. With moderate watering and light humidity of the substrate, the plants form roots even without greenhouse conditions, but they must be kept in diffuse lighting.