Ramson - cultivation and beneficial properties
Wild garlic, chanzels, bear onions, levurda, bulb, wild garlic - discreet perennial herbaceous plant, revealing in full beauty in late spring - early summer. Its similar to lily of the valley, light green leaves are appreciated for a pleasant garlic taste and useful properties, not only strengthening, but also healing the body.
You can meet wild garlic most often in shady deciduous and deciduous-spruce forests, in beams, lowlands - where it is quite humid. The range of its growth is incredibly wide. Austria, Great Britain, Georgia, Spain, Netherlands, Slovakia, France ... Wherever it grows!
Today, two types of this amazing plant are distinguished: Allium ursinum – Bear bow (found in our country in the Caucasus) and Allium victorialis – Victory bow (distributed mainly in the Far East and Siberia).
In many countries wild garlic is under protection and is listed in the Red Book, for this reason it is increasingly grown as a cultivated plant.
Useful properties and application of wild garlic
Wild garlic is valued primarily for its high content of nutrients. Vitamin A, B1, B2, C, PP, folic acid, niacin, iodine, fluorine, calcium, selenium, zinc - which is just not there! Due to this, it stimulates the gastrointestinal tract, has a positive effect on the composition of the blood, cleanses the skin, helps with colds, strengthens the immune system, heals the cardiovascular system, speeds up the metabolism, is characterized by pronounced bactericidal properties.
Edible in wild garlic and leaves, and stem, and bulb. It is used in its raw form, in salads, as side dishes, in cooking, pickled, dried, insisted.
By the genus Onions, the subfamily Onions, the family of Amaryllis wild leek is not attributed. It really has a small elongated bulb, with a diameter of about 1 cm. During flowering, an inflorescence ejects an umbrella on a rather long, from 15 to 50 cm trihedral stem. Has linear lanceolate, white tepals. Forms a fruit box with almost round seeds. But there are only two real leaves in wild garlic. Sufficiently narrow, 3-5 cm wide, sharp, lanceolate, they are somewhat inferior in height to the stem. Their petiole is already the main plate and almost twice as long as it.
Ramson is an ephemeroid. In other words, a perennial, the aerial part of which develops in the spring, and dies by the end of the summer. Her tender leaves sprouted in March are the first vitamin greens. But, the older the plant becomes, the coarser its tissue, so the harvest of wild garlic continues only until flowering, which begins in May.
After flowering, wild seeds fall off from wild garlic. They will grow only next year. If you save and sow them in the spring, sprouts will appear only in the next spring season. But wild garlic breeds in another way - vegetatively. Well-formed plants form two substitute bulbs that can be separated and planted on a bed.
Growing wild garlic
At present, wild garlic is becoming increasingly popular as a garden culture. To date, on sale, you can already meet the seeds of its three varieties: Bear delicacy, Bear cub, Bear ear.
Such close names are obviously chosen for her due to the fact that in nature a bear likes to eat a plant.
When determining a place for planting wild garlic, it is worth remembering that this culture loves quite fertile soils, shading from direct sunlight and moisture. For this reason, it is better to place it under trees or a fence - where there is no scorching sun, there is no stagnation of water and the soil does not differ in high acidity.
Wild leek propagation
The easiest way to propagate wild leek is by dividing the bush. To do this, early spring or on a cloudy summer day, part of the bulbs (necessarily with roots) must be separated from the curtain and planted in rows at a distance of 20 - 35 cm from each other with aisles of 30 - 45 cm.
If there is no way to get planting material, you can grow wild garlic from seeds. For this, the acquired seed material, without fail, must be subjected to stratification. It consists in a sufficiently long, from 80 to 100 days, cooling period, and is produced due to winter sowing. In this case, the pattern of seeding is preserved, as with vegetative propagation.
In order to make it easier to care for wild garlic seedlings, often the seeds are sown not in a permanent place, but in a box that is dug in the garden. In the spring, grass is removed from the beds, the soil is well loosened, composted, and only then plants are planted in rows.
When sowing, the seeds are not buried in the soil, but are mulched with a small layer of earth.
Care for wild leek
The first two years they only take care of the plants: they water, loosen, and feed (once or twice a season with any complex fertilizer). Since onion bulbs tend to rise by about 0.5 cm from the ground every year, starting from the second year, the bed is mulched with a thin layer of fallen leaves.
Pests and diseases
Pests and diseases of wild garlic are practically not terrible. In rare cases, with severe waterlogging and on acidic soils, rust appears on it, and then gray rot.
Wild garlic leaf collection
The yield of wild garlic reaches 3 kg per square meter. However, you can cut leaves from plants only in the third year of development. At the same time, you need to know that the remote vegetative part this year will not resume, and therefore, it will be possible to harvest the greens again in the same place only after two to three years.
Based on this, it makes sense to grow wild garlic on three beds at once, with a planting step of one year, or collect leaflets selectively.
Since wild garlic is characterized by uneven ripening of seeds, you should not wait until all the bolls burst. You need to take a bowl and periodically shake into it what is already ripe. Or put paper bags on the inflorescences and wait for the seeds to fall into them themselves.
In nature, wild garlic grows in large curtains, filling a vast area. If you let her dump the seeds in the garden, over time, the plant will turn into a malicious weed.