Pellet - miniature fern
One of the most charming pellet ferns offers plant lovers to admire the leaves of miniature size and almost perfect round shape. At least that is how they seem from afar. Shiny, as if carefully polished, magnificent lobes of leaves form not quite typical for ferns vaya. And the plant itself, thanks to its compact size, seems no less charming. And although growing pellet is not so easy, it cannot be attributed to the most capricious ferns. Pellaea is a miniature beauty that can rightfully be called inimitable.
- Pellet - a button miracle with great charisma
- Popular types of pellets
- Pellet care at home
- Pelium diseases and pests
- Pellet propagation
Pellet - a button miracle with great charisma
The unique miniature fern pellet is very good both as a pot plant and in ampels. Its patterned leaves and elegant vaya transform each plant into a luxurious accent. Pelles got their name because of dark-colored petioles of leaves - from the Latin “pellos” (dark). But here, this species is better known as a button, and in Europe - as a button fern.
This fern represents the family. Pterisovye (Pteridaceae) and lives in subtropical and tropical zones of almost the entire northern hemisphere, but is also found in New Zealand and southern Africa. The modest size of the fern in nature makes it almost invisible. But he has no equal in lace and ability to form a carpet under large plants.
The appearance of this fern is inimitably beautiful and easily recognizable even in the wild. But living in dry and mountainous areas endowed the pellet with several specific requirements for irrigation.
Pelleta (Pellaea) - a genus of not very actively growing, but still releasing up to ten new wai superdecorative, undersized grassy ferns in a season. The height of the plant is often limited to 15 cm, although adult pellets can reach 40 cm. The growth and development of this fern occurs continuously. The release of leaves does not stop even in winter, although the most active phase of vegetation traditionally occurs in spring and summer.
In accordance with the constant vegetation, there is a constant death of old leaves, which affects the decorativeness of the plant. The rhizome of the pellet is round, compact. A distinctive feature of plants is the presence of narrow ribs, which are actually two-colored scales on creeping roots.
Vayi in this fern is not quite ordinary. Thrice, double-pinnate or simple pinnate leaves are almost the same in size, smooth and whole-marginal, sit on the rachis very densely and form an almost perfectly symmetrical, tiled pattern. Sporangia on the leaves are located at the ends of the free veins and along the edges, as if covered by the bent edge of the leaves.
Popular types of pellets
In the family Pelleta (Pellaea) include about 80 species of ferns, most of which have recently been re-qualified. As a houseplant, 6 species of pellets are grown.
An absolute favorite of flower growers and the most decorative of all representatives of the genus is a charming miniature perennial Round-shaped pellet (Pellaea rotundifolia) This is a New Zealand plant with a creeping scaly rhizome, once-pinnate leaves up to 30 cm long and up to 4 cm wide.
The scales on the cuttings give the plant brightness due to its brown-red tone. But the main decoration of this pellet is rounded or elliptic leaves (up to 20 pairs on each wye) with a solid edge, dark color and dazzling gloss of a dark green surface.
Dark purple pellet (Pellaea atropurpurea) Is also a very popular and decorative look. It differs from the round-leaf pellet with its purple petioles and reddish-brown leaves, which turn the fern into one of the most spectacular dark red accents in any interior. Her leaves are double-pinnate, with pubescent petioles. This plant is not only indoor, but also garden. Moreover, its frost resistance allows you to admire wintering leaves even in the middle lane.
Green pellet (Pellaea viridis) - is distinguished by wye with atypically long petioles collected in a basal rosette. Once-pinnate leaves in length are able to grow up to half a meter, quite wide, up to 20 cm, with oval leaf-lobes. This is the largest type of pellet with the longest leaf lobes, which are not at all characterized by a coin shape.
Ovoid pellet (Pellaea ovata) Is a Central American species with very elegant vaya from light, bright leaves with heart-shaped lobes. This pellet is so unpretentious that it tolerates heat even in winter. But the advantages of this fern have not yet been fully appreciated, and it is very difficult to find it.
Pellae nude (Pellaea glabella) Is a North American species up to 35 cm high with almost linear, double-pinnate or single leaves with bare brown petioles. It is considered one of the best ferns for the design of alpine slides, but it is also used in room form.
The pellet is beautiful dark (Pellaea calomelanos) - African species of ferns with twice or thrice-pinnate leaves up to 60 cm long and up to 30 cm wide, collected in a lush basal rosette. Vayi sit on long red stalks, and the shape of the lobes of the leaves is very unusual, triangular, asymmetric.
Pellet care at home
Pellaea is not a typical fern. She loves a medium-cool wintering and stable humidity, but less moisture-loving than her popular relatives. The excellent tolerance of dry air in apartments makes this plant one of the most promising medium-sized species, and careful care can not be called too complicated.
The magnificent sparkling of the rounded leaves of the pellet literally transforms the interiors, the plant looks very elegant all year long. And you can safely choose it, even if you do not have much experience in growing indoor plants.
Lighting for pellets
Despite the fact that pellets are ranked among ferns, they are photophilous indoor crops that need to be provided with the appropriate location in the interior. All species, except dark purple and bare, need protection from direct sunlight (garden pellets are not afraid of direct sunlight). But the lighting should be diffused and as bright as possible.
On the southern windowsills, pelleys are shaded only with translucent, and not ordinary screens. The pellet is best developed in locations similar to the northern window sills. On the western and eastern windows, it also needs to diffuse sunlight or expose it in the second or third row.
Pellae cannot be called a shade-like plant, but shade-tolerant, subject to gradual adaptation from a young age, can be made. A plant in such a location grows more slowly, and the leaves partially change color, but in general, this fern retains decorativeness in partial shade and in the shade.
To "translate" the pellet into a more poor lighting, you need to gradually change its location, stretching the process of moving to a permanent place at 2-3 stages lasting 1-2 weeks (first move the plant 50 cm, then a little further, etc.) .
During the period of relative dormancy, from October to February, it is better for the pellet to adjust the lighting to compensate for its seasonal reductions. The fern is exposed in a more brightly lit place (so that the average light intensity remains similar to the summer period).
All pellets, except for the ovoid, prefer moderate temperatures and even like coolness. These ferns feel more comfortable during spring and summer at temperatures of about 20 degrees. The heat (above 23 degrees) directly affects the attractiveness of the leaves and requires an appropriate correction of care regarding air humidification. Therefore, for the pellet, it is better to choose the coolest places in the house. But you should not allow lowering the temperature to 17-18 degrees.
The wintering mode for the pellet is even easier to pick up. In the period of relative dormancy for this plant provide an environment from 14 to 16 degrees of heat. Hotter conditions can lead to complete or partial dropping of leaves (which can be easily avoided by adding heat-compensating spraying of leaves to the grooming program). Lower temperatures for pellets are fatal.
When controlling temperatures in winter, it should be borne in mind that for pellets, the temperature is not much more important than the air, but the substrate. That it should in no case fall below 14 degrees: hypothermia of the root system in the literal sense can destroy the pellet.
Among the types of indoor pellets, it is no coincidence that there are many plants from the categories of garden ferns. This culture loves fresh air, is not afraid of drafts and just needs frequent ventilation of rooms. Due to the fact that the pellet prefers coolness even in summer, it is rarely taken out to fresh air, with the exception of shaded and cool northern balconies, and terraces.
Watering and humidity
Unlike most indoor ferns, it is difficult to call a pellet a hygrophilous plant. This beauty needs moderate watering, she loves neither overmoistening, nor the complete drying of the substrate in pots. Moreover, if after a drought it is able to recover quite quickly, then after overflow it will be much more difficult to cope with problems. Between procedures, 3-4 cm of the upper layer of the substrate should dry. The usual frequency of procedures in spring and summer is 2 times a week.
If the air temperature is higher than recommended, then the plant is watered a little more often, but reducing the intensity of watering. Water must be drained from the pallet immediately. In autumn and winter, pellets are rarely watered and generally reduce the humidity of the earthen coma, allowing the substrate to dry between the procedures and in the middle of the pot. Overfilling at this time of year, especially when kept cool, can be fatal. But drought, even in winter, is undesirable. When watering at any time of the year, the plant needs careful handling: you can not pour water on the leaves.
Water for the pellet should not be so much settled as room temperature. Irrigation with settled, soft water for the pellet is undesirable: this culture loves alkaline soils and some gardeners literally water it from the tap. But it is better not to resort to such extremes.
The largest - and most pleasant - surprise the pellet prepared according to the requirements for air humidity. The pellet retains its luxurious foliage, its decorativeness does not suffer at all at indicators of 50% humidity. In general, she is perfectly suited to room conditions and there is no need to take any special moisturizing measures for the fern.
But if the air temperature deviates from the recommended indicators, then in winter and in summer it is necessary to increase air humidity by spraying foliage. In winter, these procedures are carried out every other day, in the summer - every day. But even such a measure is needed only when the indicators increase above 18 degrees in winter and 24 degrees in summer.
But the quality of water for spraying pellets will have to pay much more attention. For this culture, leaf moistening can be carried out only with soft, well-settled water with a temperature several degrees higher than room temperature. Use only small spray guns for spraying.
If there is no need to spray the plants, and dust accumulates on the greenery, then do not rush to wash the pellet with the method of suffocation. It is better to erase the dirt from the leaves with a soft brush, slightly fanning the greens with it. Wet "cleaning" pellet is not good. She doesn’t like getting wet Wai.
Like most decorative and deciduous plants, the pellet needs to be fed only during the period of the most active growth from spring to autumn. Despite the fact that plant development does not stop, fertilizers in the fall and winter do not contribute to ferns. For pellets, top dressing is carried out not with a standard frequency, but slightly less often - about 1 time in 3 weeks. From October to February, fertilizers are not applied even if the plant has lost its decorative effect.
Compound or full fertilizers specially designed for decorative and deciduous crops are best suited for this crop. Pure nitrogen fertilizers cannot be used for it, since a pellet needs not so much nitrogen as a special balance of trace elements.
Due to the active development of this fern, its release of more than a dozen new wai leaves per season leads to the fact that old leaves constantly dry. Their plant does not drop on its own, and without regular pruning of dry wai, the bushes lose their decorative effect. As a matter of fact, it is precisely to the removal of shriveled, old and ugly leaves that the whole pruning on this fern is reduced. There is no need to rejuvenate and form a pellet.
Transplant and substrate
For this fern, it is quite easy to select a soil mixture. True, one will have to forget about special substrates for ferns and acidic soils: pellets in nature grow on calcareous rocks and, unlike relatives, love soil with a slightly alkaline, in extreme cases, neutral reaction.
For this culture, both a regular ready-made substrate for ornamental-deciduous plants, and soil for ferns or a universal substrate improved by an admixture of limestone and dolomite are suitable for this culture. If you prepare the soil yourself, then mix in equal parts humus, peat, leafy soil, sand and add crushed limestone.
The pellet is transplanted only as necessary, when the roots completely absorb the available substrate. Traditionally, this fern is transplanted regardless of age with a frequency of 1 time in 2 years.
Unlike most indoor crops, a pellet does not need to be transplanted only at the end of February or March: a transplant is quite suitable for it at any time in spring and summer. During this procedure, high drainage is laid, which acts as an important measure against substrate waterlogging. The earthen lump is not destroyed, just removing the free soil and topsoil, trying to avoid contact with the roots.
After transplanting, the pellet will require special care: for 3-5 days, the plant is exposed in the so-called intermediate conditions, in partial shade, and at higher temperatures, maintain light soil moisture by careful watering until the growth and adaptation resume.
Capacities for transplanting the plant must be selected very carefully: only shallow, wide pots suitable for the horizontal type of growth of crawling roots are suitable for the pellet. At the same time, the plant is not planted in large containers, the volume is increased by only a few cm, and if possible, they simply change the free and contaminated soil from above, planting the adult pellet back in the old pot.
Pelium diseases and pests
For this fern, the greatest threat is rot caused by waterlogging of the soil, and scale insects or aphids, which spread easily over beautiful foliage in the vicinity of infected plants. But on the other hand, this fern usually does not suffer from pests that are most active in dry air - spider mites. It is impossible to deal with the problem of washing the leaves on the pellet, for the destruction of pests it is better to immediately resort to insecticides.
Common growing problems:
- softening of shoots, sluggish foxes or falling leaves when the soil is waterlogged;
- wrinkling, drying, dropping leaves in the heat;
- blanching and lethargy of leaves in excessive light;
- loss of color, drying of the tips of the leaves, the release of small leaves in the shade;
- the appearance of yellow and brown spots on the leaves during sunburn.
A new generation of these ferns can be obtained using spores or a much simpler method - separation of bushes.
Large pellets can be separated literally at each transplant. Separation is best done by hand, so that in each part there are three or more points of growth. All cuts and injuries must be treated with crushed charcoal. After the separation, part of the roots will inevitably be injured, and pelles, as a rule, need a long adaptation period. At this time, the plant needs to provide very attentive care.
Spores in this fern are formed on the lower surface of the leaves in sporangia, slightly covered by a turned-away edge. In early spring, you can collect the spores of the pellet by cutting off the leaf and scraping them onto paper, and then in the early spring, sow in shallow containers or nurseries with drainage laid at the bottom, into a disinfected substrate.
Water is abundantly watered and only after moistening is scattered on the soil surface. From above, the crops of the pellet are covered with a film or glass. They will grow only under the condition of lower heating and air temperature of about 21 degrees, in a dark place. Within 1-3 months before the emergence of seedlings, you need to ventilate the container daily and regularly moisten the substrate, preventing it from completely drying out or damp. As soon as the first plants appear, the seedling container must be transferred to bright lighting and immediately remove the film or glass from it.
As they grow up, young pellets thin out, leaving only the strongest shoots at a distance of 2 - 3 cm from each other. When the plants get stronger, they begin to develop rapidly, they are transplanted into separate small pots of 2-3 pcs.