Medicinal herbs and plants - Part 1.
People have begun to use medicinal plants to improve the health of patients since time immemorial. It has now been reliably established that even the ancient Sumerians in the III millennium BC knew and successfully used more than twenty thousand plants for the benefit of the human body.
At least, it was precisely at this time that the first Sumerian tablet found by archaeologists dates back to fifteen prescriptions for various drugs. The knowledge of the Sumerians in this area was then adopted and expanded by the Babylonians.
By the way, they were the first to notice that sunlight adversely affects the healing properties of plants, and began to dry herbs in the shade, and some types of herbs were collected at night to save the substances necessary for expelling diseases.
Herbal medicine (this is what is called herbal treatment) was further developed in China, Tibet, India and Egypt, until finally the ancient Greek scholar Hippocrates (460-370 BC) systematized this knowledge. It was he, the founder of modern medicine, who believed that “Medicine is the art of imitating the healing effects of nature”, since medicinal herbs contain in concentrated form everything that is necessary for a living organism.
Each medicinal plant contains one or more substances that, under appropriate conditions, can have healing properties. The distribution of these substances in a medicinal plant is often not uniform. Therefore, when collecting medicinal herbs, you need to know where the beneficial elements are concentrated and when their concentration is maximum in the plant.
If useful substances are distributed throughout the plant, then it is collected at the beginning of flowering, at the same time medicinal plants are collected, from which all the aboveground parts are consumed - grass.
- Leaves are harvested, as a rule, before flowering, with the exception of coltsfoot, which is harvested after flowering.
- Harvesting of roots and tubers of medicinal plants is carried out in autumn, when sap flow stops in plants or in early spring before it begins.
- The collection of seeds and fruits is carried out during their full maturity.
- The bark of all medicinal plants is collected in the spring during sap flow in the plant.
The collection of aerial parts of medicinal herbs, especially flowers, should be carried out in dry weather and by dew, since only under this condition it is possible during drying to preserve their natural color in parts of a medicinal plant and protect it from self-heating (bacterial and fungal decomposition processes), the result of which is often a loss of medicinal properties by the plant.
The bark of medicinal plants is removed from the trunks and branches (buckthorn), and for oak - only from the branches - by means of its circular cuts to wood and a cut along the trunk from one circular cut to another and peels off manually from top to bottom.
The centuries-old experience of using medicinal plants shows that their effect on different people can vary and depends on the characteristics of the body. There is also an opinion that medicinal herbs work better in the complex of several plants than when used alone. It is not only about the different active principles in different plants, but also that the useful substances of one medicinal plant are released for their work or stimulated by some substances of another plant, which, in fact, is not, perhaps, directly medicinal, etc. e. just acting as a catalyst. In complex diseases, the effect of treatment is not decided by one medicinal herb, but their interaction. This certainly must be taken into account when studying the effectiveness of the use of folk medicinal plants.
List of herbs and plants
- Aloe tree (centenary tree, agave): Aloe arborescens - Aloe preparations have a laxative, choleretic effect, have pronounced anti-inflammatory and anti-burn properties, enhance the secretion of digestive glands, improve appetite and digestion. Aloe juice has a bacteriostatic effect against many groups of microbes: staphillococci, streptococci, diphtheria, typhoid and dysenteric sticks.
- Altai officinalis: Althaea officinalis - marshmallow roots have expectorant, anti-inflammatory properties, are used for inflammatory conditions of the respiratory tract and pharynx, accompanied by difficult coughing up sputum, with inflammation of the tonsils and soft palate, tracheitis.
- Drooping birch: Betula pendula - kidneys and leaves are used in folk and official medicine, they have diuretic, choleretic, diaphoretic, blood-purifying, bactericidal, anti-inflammatory and wound healing effects.
- Elderberry black: Sambucus nigra - preparations from the flowers of black elderberry have a diaphoretic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, disinfecting effect. They are used in the form of infusions, stews, decoctions; with colds, flu, diseases of the upper respiratory tract, kidneys and bladder, for rinsing the oral cavity.
- Veronica officinalis: Veronica officinalis- Veronica officinalis drugs exhibit bronchodilator, antitussive, anti-inflammatory, appetizing, analgesic, antispasmodic, anticonvulsant, antitoxic, hemostatic, fungicidal action
- Highlander Serpentine: Polygonum bistorta- In scientific medicine, infusions and decoctions of rhizomes are used as a hemostatic, anti-inflammatory and astringent, especially for intestinal diseases. Outwardly, they are used to rinse the mouth with various inflammatory processes, pains, treatment of wounds, burns and furunculosis, with some gynecological disorders. Highlander crushed rhizomes are part of astringent gastric teas.
- Melilotus officinalis: Melilotus officinalis- Herbal melilotus - Herba Meliloti is used as a medicinal raw material. It contains 0.4-0.9% coumarin, coumaric acid, dicumarol, melilotin, essential oil, mucus. It is recommended as an anticonvulsant for angina pectoris and coronary thrombosis. It is part of the charges used externally as an emollient in abscesses and distracting in rheumatism. Promotes an increase in the number of leukocytes in patients with leukopenia due to radiation therapy.
- Common oak: Quercus robur- In folk medicine, oak bark is used to treat boils on the neck, to stop bleeding from a wound; an internal decoction of oak bark is used for stomach ulcers, for bleeding from the stomach, excessive menstrual bleeding, diarrhea and frequent urination. In the form of baths, oak bark is used for excessive sweating of the feet.
- Hypericum perforatum: Hypericum perforatum - St. John's wort decoction is used as an astringent and antiseptic for catarrh of the intestine, for rinsing with inflammatory diseases of the mucous membrane of the mouth and pharynx, for lubricating the gums with stomatitis.
- Wild strawberry (drifting snow, polonitsa, sunstroke, berry berry, etc.): Fragaria vesca- Water extract of the leaves of wild strawberries are used as a diuretic for urolithiasis and gallstone diseases. Their use is also prescribed for diabetes and anemia.
- Kalanchoe pinnate: Kalanchoe pinnata- Pharmacologically, the most widely studied is the feather of Kalanchoe pinnate. It has anti-inflammatory properties, inhibits the development of experimentally caused inflammatory process, is active in the exudation phase. In addition, the juice exhibits a bactericidal effect.
- Calendula officinalis (marigolds, crocus full): Calendula officinalis - preparations made on the basis of calendula have a calming effect on the central nervous system, reduce reflex excitability. They have a bactericidal property against a number of pathogens, especially staphylococci and streptococci.
- Horse chestnut ordinary: Aesculus hippocastanum- The escin saponin contained in the fruit can be used for medical purposes (in the treatment of diseases such as varicose veins, edema, distortion) and in nutritional supplements.
- Scepter Mullein: Verbascum thapsiforme- Mullein preparations have an astringent, analgesic, emollient, enveloping, anti-inflammatory effect.
- Stinging nettle: Urtica dioica- In medicine, mainly dioecious nettle leaves are used. They are used for radiculitis, diseases of the liver, gall bladder, urolithiasis, neurosis, scrofula, furunculosis, bronchitis, tuberculosis, hypo-and vitamin deficiencies. Used in the form of a decoction of leaves for hair loss and dandruff.
- The cinquefoil is erect (Kalgan, Uzik, Dubrovka): Potentilla erecta- In scientific medicine, astringent, antibacterial, hemostatic and anti-inflammatory properties of rhizomes are used. In medicine, rhizomes are used for enteritis, enterocolitis, dyspepsia, with stomatitis, gingivitis, gastric ulcer, diarrhea, dysentery, tonsillitis, scurvy.
- Heart-shaped linden: Tilia cordata- Linden blossom has anti-inflammatory, diaphoretic, sedative, antipyretic and diuretic effects. In medicine, it is used for colds as a diaphoretic and antipyretic, as well as bactericidal for rinsing the mouth, pharynx.
- Burdock: Arctium lappa- Leaf infusions are used for kidney and gall bladder diseases, joint pain, intestinal disorders (constipation), and diabetes mellitus. Fresh leaves are used as an antipyretic, for rheumatism, mastopathy and for wound healing.
- Coltsfoot: Tussilago farfara- Coltsfoot - a valuable cough remedy, especially for whooping cough, as well as sputum mucosa. Tea from it can facilitate coughing, make viscous bronchial mucus more fluid, and, therefore, bring real relief to patients with chronic bronchitis, pneumoconiosis and pulmonary emphysema.
- Medunitsa officinalis: Pulmonaria officinalis - This species of Lungwort has been used since ancient times as a medicinal plant to treat pulmonary diseases.
- Peppermint field: Mentha piperita- In medicine, mint leaves are part of gastric, carminative, sedative and choleretic teas, mint drops for nausea, as a means of increasing appetite, and antispasmodic gastric.
- Marigolds (calendula): Calendula officinalis- Used as a wound healing, bactericidal and anti-inflammatory agent: infusion - as a choleretic, tincture - for tonsillitis, gastrointestinal diseases, inflammatory processes of the liver, for the treatment of periodontal disease; ointment - with bruises, cuts, furunculosis, burns, purulent wounds; the drug "Kaleflon" - as an antiulcer.
- Stonecrop large: Sedum maximum - Healing juice is recommended by healers for chronic coronary heart disease with frequent bouts of pain, pulmonary and heart failure, gastric and duodenal ulcer, chronic diseases of the liver and gall bladder, inflammatory diseases of the female genital area (helps accelerate reparative processes), promotes bone fusion.
- Large plantain: Plantago major- In scientific medicine, leaves are used as wound healing, anti-inflammatory, hemostatic, expectorant, hypnotic, analgesic, bactericidal and anti-allergic drugs.
- Common wormwood: Artemisia vulgaris - In medicine, the leafy tops of a plant collected during flowering and roots harvested in autumn are used. Wormwood improves appetite and digestion, has a tonic, soothing, hematopoietic, wound healing, choleretic and mild laxative effect; improves the functioning of the stomach and helps with fever.
- Wheat grass creeping: Agropyron repens - In scientific medicine, wheatgrass rhizomes are used as regulating salt metabolism, enveloping, expectorant, diaphoretic, laxative, diuretic and blood purifying agent, and also as the basis of pills.
- Common chamomile (pharmacy): Matricaria recutita - Infusion of chamomile flower baskets has anti-inflammatory, hemostatic, antiseptic, weak astringent, analgesic, sedative, anticonvulsant, diaphoretic, choleretic effect.
- Mountain ash (gergenbin, grabine, mountain ash, rowan): Sorbus aucuparia - Fruits contain sugar (up to 5%), malic, citric, tartaric and succinic acids (2.5%), tannins (0.5%) and pectic (0.5%) %) substances, sorbitol and sorbose, amino acids, essential oils, salts of potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium. Fruits are used in medicine as a multivitamin and carotene-containing raw materials.
- Black currant (mowing, brewing, etc.): Ribes nigrum - Currants have diaphoretic, diuretic and fixing properties. The leaves, buds and fruits of black currant have a disinfecting effect associated with essential oils.
- Sophora Japanese (Japanese acacia): Sophora japonica - Sophora fruits are used in medicine. Applied in the form of infusion for washing, irrigation, wet dressings for purulent inflammatory processes - wounds, burns, trophic ulcers. Sophora buds are used for the production of rutin, used for vitamin deficiency P, vascular permeability disorders, for the treatment of capillary lesions, etc.
- Mushroom Cracker (Swamp marsh): Gnaphalium uliginosum - Mushroom is used to heal wounds, ulcers, burns, in the initial stage of hypertension, with angina pectoris, stomach and duodenal ulcers, and diabetes mellitus, has a vasodilating effect.
- Creeping thyme (thyme, Bogorodskaya grass): Thymus serpyllum - Leafy twigs are used in scientific medicine. Infusions, decoctions and thyme extract are prescribed for acute and chronic diseases of the respiratory tract, bronchial asthma and tuberculosis. The liquid extract from the leaves is part of the Pertussin preparation used for bronchitis and whooping cough. Creeping thyme has a bactericidal, anticonvulsant, sedative, analgesic, wound healing and anthelmintic effect
- Yarrow: Achillea millefolium-The plant is widely used in medicine in various countries as hemostatic (for nose, uterine, pulmonary, hemorrhoidal and other bleeding), for colitis, various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, inflammatory diseases of the urinary tract, like astringent in gastrointestinal disorders, has anti-inflammatory and bactericidal properties.
- Violet tricolor (pansies): Viola tricolor- Wild pansies are used in traditional and traditional medicine as a remedy for many diseases: scrofula, cough, hernia, toothache and many others. Its medicinal properties (like the similar properties of many other members of the family) are explained by the presence in all parts of the plant of saponin, inulin, violin and other alkaloids.
- Common horsetail: Equisetum arvense- In scientific medicine, the aerial part of the plant is used. Horsetail infusions are used as a diuretic, anti-inflammatory, hemostatic, restorative, wound healing and astringent. They help with heart failure, improve water-salt metabolism.
- Persimmon Caucasian (Diospira tree): Diospyros lotus - The fruits of the Caucasian persimmon are edible and contain many sugars, malic acid and vitamins. They are used in food fresh, captured by frost, often dried. By drying and frost, their astringency is destroyed.
- Three-part sequence (scrofulous grass): Bidens tripartita - Infusion, tincture - for metabolic disorders, as a means of improving appetite and digestion, light diaphoretic, diuretic, choleretic and sedative; as a means to lower blood pressure; externally (in the form of baths and washes) - with rickets, gout, arthritis and exudative diathesis.
- Celandine is big: Chelidonium majus- Juice cures the nasopharynx, adenoids, polyps, glands, sinusitis, gums, warts, corns, acne, abscesses, boils, fistulas, scabies, eczema, fungus, herpes (on the lips), skin irritation after shaving, burns caused by fire, steam, hot milk, sunbeams, chemicals.
- Salvia officinalis: Salvia officinalis - Preparations from the aerial part (leaves and flowers) of medicinal sage have a disinfectant, anti-inflammatory, astringent, hemostatic, emollient, diuretic effect, and reduce perspiration.
- Horse sorrel: Rumex confertus- In medicine, it is used to treat bleeding stomach ulcers, colitis and enterocolitis, hemorrhoids, cholecystitis and hepatocholecystitis, hypertension, and also against worms, since horse sorrel preparations also have anthelmintic effects.
- Eucalyptus round (shameless): Eucalyptus globulus- Preparations from eucalyptus leaves have anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and expectorant effects, are capable of stimulating appetite. They are active against gram-positive, gram-negative microorganisms, have a detrimental effect on fungi and protozoa.
- White lamb (deaf nettle, dead nettle, white nettle, white cinnamon flowers): Lámium álbuma- The flowers and leaves of deaf nettle contain mucus, tannins, saponins, ascorbic acid. Deaf nettle is a good honey plant, attracting a significant amount of insects (bees, bumblebees, butterflies). It gives a lot of nectar and pollen.