Actinidia - a ray of the garden
Actinidia are the original inhabitants of the Russian Far East, Central and East Asia. These relic plants have survived from time immemorial, when the climate of their homeland was subtropical, survived the glaciation that swept the continent and adapted to hardened environmental conditions.
Actinidia (lat.Actinídia from the Greek. Ακτινιδιον - ray) is a genus of woody vines of the family Actinidia (Actinidiaceae). The most famous are the fruits of cultivars from this genus - kiwi or actinidia delicacy.
Actinidia - shrub vines with falling leaves. The kidneys are completely or partially hidden in leaf scars. Leaves are alternate, whole, with serrate or serrated margins, without stipules. Flowers of different sizes (with a diameter of 1-1.5 to 3 cm) are collected in the axils of the leaves, three or a single. Perianth double, 4-5-membered. The corolla is cup-shaped, more often white, but there are also golden yellow or orange flowers. In most species, the flowers are odorless, but, for example, in polygamous actinidia, they are fragrant.
Androecium is represented by 10 free stamens. Columns 8-15, they are filiform, fused at the base and bent outward (this is an important systematic feature). The fruit is an oblong berry, yellow-green, or light orange, in some species it is edible.
Actinidia are very decorative. They are good for vertical gardening of arbors, verandas, house walls, trellises, pergolas, fences.
From the fruits of actinidia, compotes, jam, jam, marshmallow, marmalade are prepared, they can be eaten fresh. They surpass blackcurrant in the content of vitamins. Dried and dried fruits of sweet varieties both externally and taste like raisins.
Actinidia prefers well-lit warm places with loose water and breathable soil, but tolerates partial shade. Its roots are located at a depth of 20-40 cm. She does not like stagnant soil moisture and dry air.
The best landing time is the first decade of May. Placement - in one row at a distance of 2–2.5 m. The root neck is not buried. Better seedlings with a closed root system take root. Dioecious species for five to seven “women” need one “man”.
When planting, a pit with a width and depth of at least 60 cm is prepared for each seedling. Drain from broken brick and gravel 10–15 cm thick is laid at the bottom. The excavated soil is mixed with rotted manure (8–10 kg), wood ash is added (300–400 d), superphosphate (200–300 g), and on heavy soils another 1-2 buckets of sand. The acidity of the mixture should be pH 6–7.
Since actinidia are lianas, it is best and most convenient for them to grow in a vertical culture on trellises. For the trellis device, several poles must be dug at least 2 m high at a distance of 2 m from each other, and between them stretch several rows of wire or wire in isolation. The trellis should be oriented from east to west.
Actinidia care comes down to weed control, soil loosening and watering.
The first 2-3 years of actinidia are not fed. Then each year, at the end of April, they give 30 g of ammonium nitrate, 15 g of double superphosphate and potassium salt per 1 sq. Km. m, and in the summer watered with a solution of "Kemira" (20 g per 10 liters of water). At the end of September, 20 g of superphosphate and potassium salt are added to each plant for digging.
Pruning is done after leaf fall, in the second half of September, and only three years after planting. In early autumn and early spring, when sap flow is in progress, actinidia cannot be cut off, since they tend to literally run out with cell sap (“cry” like birch trees), they can weaken and die. Spring pruning can be done in late May - early June. In adult plants, shoots are annually shortened by half - a third of their length and cut branches that thicken the crown. Rejuvenating pruning is done at the age of 7–10 years, cutting the plant to a stump 30–40 cm long.
In winter, the first 2-3 years after planting, the vines are removed from the trellises, laid on the ground and covered with peat, dry leaves and spruce branches. Adult plants winter without shelters.
Actinidia practically do not suffer from pests and diseases. Very rarely they are affected by leaf spot and gray fruit rot. But young actinidia have an unexpected enemy - cats, which are attracted to fragrant substances contained in the roots and broken branches. If a cat eats several shoots - it's okay, but if you get to the roots ... So young plants need to be fenced with a metal mesh. Cats are not dangerous to adult plants.
This culture is easy to propagate, and you can grow your own female or male samples. Actinidia seedling preserves the sex of the plant from which it developed. Even all the characteristics of the variety are retained. The situation with the reproduction of actinidia by seeds is more complicated. Only with time will it be possible to find out which seedling will have sex, which signs of the variety it will retain, and which not. But there are pluses: plants grown from seeds easier to tolerate various environmental conditions, they are more hardy. Seedlings propagated vegetatively begin to bear fruit in the 3rd - 4th year, and those that have grown from seeds sometimes bear fruit only in the 7th year.
Reproduction of actinidia by arc layers
This is the easiest way. In the spring, when the sap flow has ended and the young leaves are deployed, they take a well-developed, long growth shoot. The top of the shoot is tilted to the ground and fixed so that its end is free and rises above the soil. For this procedure, hairpin made from flyer or wire. The fastener place is covered with soil 10-15 cm and watered. From above the mound is mulched with sawdust or humus.
Then they make sure that the mound is not overgrown with weeds, regularly moisten the soil, and the shoot that appears is often sprayed with water. Next year or in the fall, cuttings, separated from the mother plant, are planted in a permanent place.
To get several layering from one shoot, cut off its top and only then pin it to the ground. When the young shoots grown from the buds are about 20 cm long, they are spudded twice with fertile loose soil. Then look after the same as described above.
Propagation of actinidia by cuttings
Propagation of actinidia by cuttings is used to quickly propagate valuable varieties and obtain a large number of seedlings.
Green cuttings are carried out in June, when the fruits begin to grow rapidly, and the semi-lignified shoots turn brown. Cut the shoots in the morning or in the morning, choosing strong annual branches 0.5 - 1 m long. Then the ends of the shoots are lowered into the water and transferred to the room, where they are divided into segments of 10 - 15 cm. Each stalk should have at least three kidneys and two internodes. The lower section is made oblique, immediately under the kidney, and the upper one is straight, 4-5 cm higher than the kidney. The lower leaves with petioles are removed. This should be done carefully so as not to damage the kidneys. At the top sheet you need to leave half of the leaf blade. You can not let the prepared cuttings dry out, immediately after cutting they are placed in a vessel with water, immersing the lower ends.
Cuttings are planted in a greenhouse or greenhouse, having previously prepared a place for planting. Carefully dig the soil, adding humus and river sand in a ratio of 2: 2: 1 or perlite (1: 1). Add mineral complex fertilizer (only without chlorine!) At the rate of 100 g per 1 m2. The soil reaction should be neutral or slightly acidic. Thoroughly level the surface of the beds, slightly compact, water abundantly, add sifted clean river sand with a layer of 3-4 cm, then water again.
Cuttings when planting are placed obliquely, an angle with the soil is made somewhere 60 degrees. The distance in the row is 5 cm, between the rows of 8 - 10 cm. It is necessary to deepen so that the middle kidney is at the level of the soil. The ground near each cuttings after planting is compacted. Then again watered and covered with a double layer of gauze. Before rooting, it is thoroughly sprayed with water 2-5 times a day. Somewhere in a month, after rooting, the covering material is removed in cloudy weather in the morning and in the evening, and after 1 - 2 weeks they are removed permanently. In winter, cuttings are left at the planting site, covered with fallen leaves, and in the spring they are dug up and planted in a permanent place. It is better to do this before the buds open.
Lignified cuttings are also suitable for the propagation of actinidia. They are harvested in late autumn and stored upright for spring planting, bundled and placed in a sandbox. In the storage place, the temperature should be low (1 - 5 ° C). You can prepare cuttings at the end of winter, before the sap flow begins. Cuttings are planted in a greenhouse or greenhouse with loose fertile soil, watered once every two days. Take care of lignified cuttings in the same way as for green ones.
Combined cuttings actinidia propagated in early summer. They use the growing shoot of the current year with a part of the annual branch adjacent to its base. Cuttings are planted in a garden or in a greenhouse in the open ground. During the rooting period, they must be shaded from sunlight and watered daily. With this method of propagation of actinidia, the root system develops well. Cuttings are planted in a permanent place in the spring of next year.
Actinidia seed propagation
Seeds are taken from ripe intact fruit. They are kneaded, then, placed in a mesh bag, thoroughly washed under running water. Selected seeds are laid on paper and dried in the shade.
Stratification begins in the first decade of November. For four days, the seeds are soaked in water so that its layer does not exceed 2 cm. Every day, the water is changed to fresh. Then the seeds for 2 months are placed in a box of wet sand, previously wrapped in nylon cloth. The box is kept indoors at a temperature of 18 - 20 ° C. Seeds are removed from the sand every week and ventilated for 3-5 minutes, then washed in running water, carefully squeezed out with a cloth and again placed in wet sand. The main thing is that the seeds do not dry out.
In January, a box of sand and seeds should be wrapped in cloth and dripped in snow. The snow layer must be well compacted, and not less than 1 m. This period of stratification also lasts 2 months.
The box is transferred to a room with a temperature of 10 - 12 ° C in March. If the temperature is increased, the seeds can fall into a dormant period. And this time they are removed from the box every week, aired and washed. As soon as stubborn or cracked seeds appear, they are all at once sown in sowing boxes filled with a mixture of turf land and river sand. Seeding depth - not more than 0.5 cm.
Emerging seedlings are regularly shaded from direct sunlight and sprayed with water. Seedlings are transplanted into a greenhouse in mid-June, when 3-4 leaves are formed. There they are regularly weeded and watered. After 3 - 5 years, when the seedlings bloom for the first time, determine their gender, then transplant to a permanent place.
Regardless of the breeding methods, in the onset of autumn frosts, young plants are covered with dry fallen leaves with a layer of about 20 cm, and covered with spruce top. Shelter is removed in the spring, and the soil around the seedlings is mulched with old sawdust or humus.
The first 2 to 3 years for young plants are dangerous late spring return frosts. Not having enough spare buds to recover from freezing, seedlings can die. Therefore, during frosts, plants are covered with a film.
More than 30 species of actinidia are known. Most often, we do not meet in the gardens, but on the shelves of shops - kiwi, or the fruits of Chinese actinidia. Under natural conditions, three species grow in Russia - colomict actinidia, acute actinidia, and polytrophic actinidia. In garden plots, these plants have not yet received wide distribution.
Actinidia colomicta, or Amur gooseberry (Actinidia kolomikta), is a deciduous dioecious vine with a thin, branched, smooth trunk 5–10 cm thick. In nature, its length reaches 8–10 m. In culture, the length of the vine is 3–7 m, trunk thickness 2 –4 cm. Leaves are green, often variegated with spots, 10–15 cm long. In the axils of the lower leaves are flowers - bisexual or same-sex. Men's collected three in short inflorescences. Female - single, pink or white, with a strong aroma, similar at the same time to lemon and lily of the valley, up to 2 cm in diameter. Actinidia colomict blooms 4-10 days. Flowers bloom together with the unfolding of leaves - in May – June. This species has an interesting property: during flowering, the leaves developing in the sun become variegated, after flowering pink or raspberry, in the fall they turn red and purple. Shaded leaves remain green. The fruits of actinidia colomicta are soft, oblong, 2-3 cm long, sit on long stalks and are vaguely reminiscent of gooseberries (hence the second name of the plant). Their color is green with a yellowish tinge. You must try the fruits with caution. Unripe (and sometimes mature) can cause severe soreness and burning on the lips.
Actinidia polygamous, or polygamous, or nosy, or acute (Actinidia polygama), is a deciduous monoecious liana 4-6 m long. The flowers are large (2.5 cm in diameter), white or yellowish, with a strong pleasant aroma. Young leaves are silver white. It blooms in July. Fruits are cylindrical, 2–4 cm long, light orange, with a “nose”. Sorta - ‘Yellow Spindle’, ‘Perchik’, ‘Canary’, ‘Sun-faced’. Fresh fruits are inedible - the sweetness of the flesh is combined with acute pungency and pepper aroma. Acuity and severity disappear only after freezing.
Acute actinidia (Actinidia arguta) - deciduous dioecious liana up to 25-30 m long. The thickness of the trunk is 8–12, rarely 20 cm. An adult plant is very similar to a rope wrapped around a support. Lives over a hundred years. The bark is light gray or light brown. The leaves are dark green, shiny, up to 15 cm long, slightly yellow by autumn. The flowers are greenish, up to 2 cm in diameter, open in June – July. Greenish-yellow or dark green fruits with the aroma of pineapple, up to 3 cm long, ripen in September – October. 30-50 kg of berries are picked from one vine. An important advantage of the species is the simultaneous ripening of fruits. From three to four years, acute actinidia begins to outstrip actinidia colomictus in growth. But it is less hardy. Variety чат Onion ’is a hybrid of actinidia colomicta and acute actinidia.
In the European part of Russia, diseases and pests of actinidia are not very widespread, however, it can be affected by phylostictosis, powdery mildew and other fungal pathogens, which is most often manifested in the form of dots, spots of various shapes on the leaves. In this case, you can use Bordeaux liquid, leaves with signs of the disease must be collected and destroyed. Young plants should be protected from cats that gnaw the bark and buds of creepers. Often, to protect you even have to install a metal mesh around it. Cats are not dangerous to adult plants.
Each culture has its own “weaknesses”, Actinidia has three of them: instability to late spring frosts, which can cause damage to shoots and flowers, non-simultaneous ripening and shedding of fruits. However, these shortcomings are not so significant, if we take into account that due to the supply of sleeping buds, the liana is quickly restored, covered with new shoots and leaves, the ripening of fruits at the same time can extend their fresh consumption, and the problem of crumbling can be solved by laying a clean paper or film. Recently, varieties of actinidia, such as Moma and Moskvichka, have been bred, whose berries do not crumble when ripe.Most often, the collection is carried out in several stages, if necessary, you can remove the solid fruits a few days before ripening and ripen them at room temperature in the room, taking into account that the taste qualities of the berries are slightly reduced and they easily absorb extraneous odors.